components of buildingBuildings are made up of building material and it have different components of building. About which every civil engineers should must have knowledge because in accordance to the components of building they design the structure of a particular building.The components of building plays a vital role to give the structure support and it defines its durability.Also skilled labours are required who have the knowledge of the components of building and according to the design they work.

A building has two basic parts:

  • Sub-Structure or Foundations
  • Super-structure
Sub-structure or Foundation is the components of building. It is the lower part which is usually below the ground level or it is direct contact with the ground to which load is transmitted.
Super-structure is the upper part which is above the soil level or which have purpose to intended use. A part of super-structure, located b/w the ground level and the floor is called Plinth.

Following are the components of building :-

1.Foundations
2.Walls and Columns
3.Floor
4.Roof
5.Doors and Windows
6.Verticals transportation or lift eg. Stairs,ramps etc
7.Building Finishing

1. Foundation

The first and major components of building is foundation which helps in transmitting the loads to the soil which holds it.All deads loads and live loads transferred to the sub soils.

2. Masonary Units

It is the construction of the building along with the mortar.It may be stones,bricks or blocks.It is used for construction of Foundation Walls,columns or other construction component.

3. Floor

It is the horizontal components of building which divide the constructed building into different level.It is restricted space one above the other floor.
Floor area ratio=Total area covered of all floors x 100/Plot area

4. Roof

A roof is the upper most part of the building.It the covering top of the building in such a way that to keep protected from rain,sunlight or wind.
It has two elements:(i)Roof Decking
                                    (ii)Roof Covering

5. Doors and Windows

This components of building is the opening part of the building. The doors are the movable part providing the opening of the wall, to access various spaces of the building.For the doors and windows lintels are necessary.Lintels are made up timber, steels, stones or cements and concrete.

6. Vertical Transportation

These consists of stairs,ramps,ladders,lifts and escalators .A stairs may be defined as series of foot steps which is connected to above floor.

7. Building finishing

Building finishing is used to give protective layer to the components of building and also for decorative purpose.It consist of following elements-
(i)Plastering
(ii)Painting
(iii)Varnishing and polishing
(iv)White washing
(v)Dis tempering
(vi)Color washing